Vol. 19, No. 6 | November, 1944


A brief summary of present practices and a detailed series of recommenda- tions for the development of an adequate program in California feature this symposium devoted to the place of United States history and civics as con- tributing parts of the school citizenship program. The three parts of the sym- posium consist of the following: a summary of the Wesley committee report on “American History in Schools and Colleges,” the report of a subcom- mittee of the California Committee on the situation existing in California. and an article orienting United States history as a part of the broader social studies program.


Superintendent Harry E. Tyler of the Santa Maria Union High School and Junior College writes about the steps his system has taken towards an adequate postwar program.


A report on what a health education committee accomplished in La Cumbre Junior High School, Santa Barbara. The article is written by Marion E. Taggart.


Roy Cochrane of the Lassen Union High School, Susanville, describes the course organized in his school for the orientation of entering students.


Dr. D. F. Jackey, supervisor of trade and industrial teacher training at UCLA, describes the sifting process which vocational departments have set up for the selection of students to be given trade training. The article emphasizes the important place of guidance in this screening.







April, May,

San Francisco,

October, Novem California. On

CONTENTS for NOVEMBER Eprror1AL COMMENT AND NOTES New Books . 339 Art in Today’s School 4 Next Month > Program Margaret H. Erdt 343 Next Month . 345 THE SCHOOLS New Associate Editors . 345 GET READY FOR THE Tue TEACHING oF Unrtep States History RETURNED —i Sympotum VETERANS U. S. History in Schools and Colleges Harold W. Bradley 347 v Teaching U. S. History and Civics in California AND STILL Ree Cane yao A ee Subcom- THE mittee on United States History and Civics of the OUT-OF-STATE California Committee for the Study of Education 352 PUPILS Current Trends in Social Studies . I. James Quillen 372 COME rigs A Course in Ninth Grade Orientation Roy Cochrane 376 ad A Practical Program for Postwar THE Planning . Harry E. Tyler 380 ANNUAL Building a Junior High Health INDEX Program Marion E. Taggart 382 Sacramento Plans for the Future Merril Osenbaugh 386 Selection of Trainees for Vocational Courses D. F. Jackey 388 Current Research in the Field of Secondary Education William A. Smith 393 What’s Happening in California Secondary Schools . ; Frank B. Lindsay 395 The California Journal of Secondary Education is published by the California Society of Educa- tion in eight numbers duri year and is issued in the calendar months of January, February, March,

, and December, from the office of publication at 170 South Van Ness Avenue, e dollar and fifty cents of each membership fee in the Society is for a year’s

eabscription to the Journal. Subscription to nonmembers is $3.00 per year; single copies, 50 cents. Annual

iptions in all countries in the International Postal Union, $3.25. Members and subscribers are requested

to report at once any change of address, giving old as well as new address. Entered as second at the post office at San Francisco, Cali

ifornia, under the Act of August 24, 1912.




Epwarp H. Reprorb...............


Ausrey A. DouGLass

Managing Editor

Editorial Office: Rooms 9-10, Haviland Hall, Berkeley, California

CONSULTANT EDITORS (Ex-officio Members)

HarROLD BENNETT Brooks, President, Asso- ciation of California Secondary School Principals; Principal, George Washing- ton Junior High School, Long Beach,

A. J. CLoup, President, Western Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools ; Presi- dent, San Francisco Junior College, San Francisco,

FRANK N. FREEMAN, Dean of the School of Education, University of California, Berkeley.

EpwIn A..Leg, Dean of the Department of Education, University of California at Los Angeles,

FRANK B. Linpsay, Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction and Chief of the Di- vision of Secondary Education, State De- partment of Education.

Lester B. Rogers, Dean of the School of Education, University of Southern Cali- fornia, Los Angeles,

FrRanK W. TuHoMAS, President, California Society of Secondary Education; Presi- dent, Fresno State College.


MARGARET BENNETT, Director of Guidance, Pasadena City Schools.

R. W. Borst, English Department, Junior College, Fullerton.

BERNICE BuDLONG, California Home Eco- nomics Association; Supervisor of Do- mestic Arts, San Jose.

Louise S. Coss, California Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recrea- tion; Assistant Supervisor of Physical Education, University of California, Berkeley.

MarGcaret H. Erpt, Supervisor of Art, City School Department, San Bernardino. Mrs. J. J. GARLAND, President, California Congress of Parents and Teachers, Inc.,

Menlo Park.

MARGARET GIRDNER, California Library Asso- ciation; Supervisor of Texts and Libra- ries, City Public Schools, San Francisco.

Rosco CHANDLER INGALLS, Director, Los An- geles City College.

CECELIA IRVINE, Head of Economics and His- tory Department, University High School, West Los Angeles.

Davin F. Jackery, California Industrial Edu- cation Association; Professor of Voca- tional Education, University of California,

Los Angeles.

W. W. Kemp, Professor of Education, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley.

WILLIAM J. Kuopp, Supervisor of Instruc- tion in Senior High Schools and Junior College, Long Beach.

GERTRUDE Laws, Director of Education for Women, Pasadena City School Depart- ment, Pasadena.

BAYARD Q. MorGAN, Modern Language Asso- ciation of Northern and Central Califor- nia; Professor of Germanic Languages, Stanford University.

Howarp H. Patter, California Association of Independent Secondary Schools, Clare- mont.

JOSEPHINE V. RAUSCH, Social Studies, George Washington Senior High School, San Francisco.

WILLIAM A. SmiTH, Professor of Education (Secondary), University of California at Los Angeles.

Mrs. RutH G. SUMNER, Mathematical Asso- ciation of America—Northern California Section; Mathematics Department, Oak- land High School, Oakland.

HELEN L. Wirt, Department of Dramatics, Oakland High School, Oakland.

F. M. Yockery, Principal, Technical Evening

High School, Oakland.

| | | |


HERE ARE five successful texts for secondary schools—grades seven through twelve.

How the World Lives and Works (7 or 8) . .. . + « §1.72

The 1944 edition of this widely-used book by Brigham & McFar- lane contains a new section on “Global Geography,” with several fine maps on global flying.

Our America, Past and Present (7 or 8) ..... . . $1.80

A very readable text by Knowlton and Harden. Rich in narra- tion and biography, with many contemporary pictures, cartoons, and headlines. The 1944 edition comes through to Eisenhower, Marshall and MacArthur.

My Worth to the World (9) . . . «. «© « «© « « « « « $1.80

A revision and expansion of a highly successful text by Capen and Melchior, introducing ninth graders to community civics, voca- tions, government, world citizenship, responsible citizenship—with the youngster as the organizing center throughout. Excellent teach- ing equipment.

Across the Ages—The Story of Man’s Progress (10) . . . $2.40

The outstanding high school World History text of recent years by Dr. Louise Capen. Organization by social concepts rather than by peoples or countries. The 1944 edition has a final section on “Current World Events.”

The Development of America (11 or 12) . .... . . §2.40

A leader in its field, by Dr. Fremont P. Wirth—on a warp-and- woof organization of chronological and topical units. The 1944 edition has a final section on “Recent Events.”



New Books

MONG the new books in the social

studies field which have come to the

offices of the JouRNAL within recent months for review are the following:

A B C’s of Scapegoating, with a foreword by Gordon W. Allport. Central YMCA Col- lege, Chicago, Ill., 1944. Price, 25 cents; 72 pages.

The Amazon: A New Frontier?, by Earl Parker Hanson. No. 45 in the “Headline Series,” Foreign Policy Association, 22 East 38th Street, New York City. Price, 25 cents; 95 pages.

Citizenship, by Stanley Johnson and Wil- liam M. Alexander. Ginn and Company, 1944. Price, $1.80; 506 pages.

A Basic History of the United States, by Charles A. and Mary R. Beard. The New Home Library, (a division of Garden City Publishing Co.) 14 West 49th Street, New York, 1944. Price, 69 cents; 520 pages.

Kirby's Course of Study for the United States Constitution (fifth edition) (with 9-page Teachers’ Answer Key), by Wesley D. Kirby. O. B. Marston Supply Co., Phoenix, Arizona. Price, 40 cents; 50 pages.

Latin America and the World Struggle for Freedom, by Ryland W. Crary. “Unit Stu-

dies in American Problems,” published for the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools by Ginn and Com- pany, 1943. Price, 68 cents; 129 pages.

Look at Africa, by W. C. and M. S. Wool- bert. Number 43 of the Headline Series, Foreign Policy Association, 22 East 38th Street, New York 16, 1943. Price, 25 cents; 96 pages.

Machines for America, by Marshall Dunn and Lloyd N. Morrisett. “America at Work” series, World Book Company, 1943. Price, 80 cents; 176 pages.

A Modern Conquistador in South America, by Clarence M. Altenburg. Christopher Pub- lishing House, Boston, 1944. Price, $2.50; 183 pages.

Much in Little on the United States Army, by Ruby Lee Adams. 219 Ninth Avenue, North, Nashville, Tennessee, 1943. Price, $1.00; 51 pages.

On the Threshold of World Order, by Vera Micheles Dean. No. 44 of the “Headline Se- ries,” Foreign Policy Association, 22 East 38th Street, New York City, 1944. Price, 25 cents ; 94 pages.

Power for America, by Marshall Dunn and Lloyd N. Morrisett. “America at Work” Series, World Book Company, 1943. Price, 80 cents; 176 pages.

Publication Printers


The James H. Barry Company



Your Money and the Federal Reserve Sys- tem. Published by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Price, 15 cents; 32 pages.

Recent books and teaching aids in the fields of science and mathematics are the following:

Achievement Tests in Physics, by M. IL. Buker. The Macmillan Company, 1944. Price, 36 cents; 48 pages.

Agricultural Science to Serve Youth, by Warren Peter Everote. No. 901 of the Con- tributions to Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, Bureau of Publications, 1943. Price, $1.85; 85 pages.

Basic Mathematics for War and Industry, by Paul H. Daus, John M. Gleason, and Wil- liam M. Whyburn. The Macmillan Company, N. Y., 1944. Price, $2.00; 290 pages.

Conservation of Natural Resources, by Conway L. Rhyne and Ellsworth E. Lory. Ginn and Company, 1944. Price, 68 cents; 110 pages.

Essential Mathematics, by William David Reeve. The Odyssey Press, Inc., New York, 1943. Price, $1.32; 286 pages.

General Mathematics in American Colleges, by Kenneth E. Brown. No. 893 of the Con- tributions to Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, Bureau of Publications, 1943. Price, $2.35; 173 pages.


Printers specializing in the

production of school yearbooks





Hundred-Problem Arithmetic Raleigh Schorling, John R. Clark, and Mary

Test, by

A. Potter. World Book Company, 1944. Price per specimen set, 15 cents; price per package, 90 cents.

Test of Functional Thinking in Mathemat- ics, by Judson W. Foust and Raleigh Schor- ling. World Book Company, 1944. Price per specimen set, 15 cents; price per package, $1.25.

Today's Geometry, by David Reichgott and Lee R. Spiller. Prentice-Hall, Inc, New York, 1944 (revised). Price, $1.96; 407 pages.

Vital Mathematics, by Edwin Brown Allen, Dis Maly, and S. Herbert Starkey Jr. The Macmillan Company, 1944; 378 pages.

In the field of industrial arts and trade training are the following books which have been received for review:

The Craftsman Prepares to Teach, by David F. Jackey and Melvin L. Barlow. The Mac- millan Company, 1944. Price, $2.00; 184 pages.

Lathe Operations, by Lewis E. King. The Macmillan Company, 1944. Price, $1.75; 119 pages.

Modern Drafting, by William H. Johnson and Louis V. Newkirk. The Macmillan Com- pany, New York, 1944; 203 pages.

Safety Education in the School Shop, pub- lished by the National Safety Council, Inc., 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, 1944. Price, 50 cents; 56 pages.

Shipyard Diary of a Woman Welder, by Augusta H. Clawson. Penguin Books, Inc., 300 Fourth Avenue, New York City, 1944. Price, 25 cents; 190 pages.

Books and other publications in the general field of education sent to the JourNAL for review include the follow- ing:

American Democracy and Secondary Edu- cation, by Kenneth D. Norberg. No. 886 of the Contributions to Education, Teachers Col- lege, Columbia University, Bureau of Publi- cations, 1943. Price, $2.10; 136 pages.

American History in Schools and Colleges —Report of the Committee on American His- tory in Schools and Colleges, Edgar B. Wes- ley, director. The Macmillan Company, 1944; 161 pages.

Better Men for Better Times, by The Com- mission on American Citizenship, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., 1943; 139 pages.

Challenges to Education—War and Post- War. Schoolman’s Week Proceedings, Uni-

versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 4, 1943. Price, $1.00; 356 pages.

Cumulative Pupil Records, by Wendell C. Allen, Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col- lege, Columbia University, New York City. Price, $1.25; 76 pages.

Current Conceptions of Democracy, by John R. Berry. No. 888 of the Contributions to Education, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- versity, Bureau of Publications, 1944. Price $1.85; 115 pages.

Education for War and Peace, by Stanford Workshop on Education for War and Peace. Stanford University Press, 1942. Price, 25 cents; 39 pages.

Educational Inbreeding, by Harold E. Sny- der. No. 890 of the Contributions to Educa- tion, Teachers College, Columbia University, Bureau of Publications, 1943. Price, $2.35; 170 pages.

Evaluation in Teacher Education, by Mau- rice E. Troyer and C. Robert Pace. American Council on Education, Washington, D. C.. 1944. Price, $3.00; 380 pages.

Exploring the Wartime Morale of High- School Youth, by Lee J. Cronbach. Published for the American Association for Applied Psychology, Stanford University Press, 1943. Price, $1.25; 79 pages.





116 New Montgomery Street San Francisco 5

Have you seen our Catalog of Standard Tests, just off the press?


Gamma for high schools

IOWA SILENT READING TESTS: New Edition (Revised) Advanced for high schools

1233 South Hope Street Los Angeles 15



ERE is a book designed especially to interest your students in the

most fascinating story any American can read—The American Story. Senior high school students will welcome this new and vivid American history, simply told, brief, clear, readable, and filled with well-chosen illustrations. Because of its careful selection of facts, help- ful interpretation of events, and simple vocabulary, The American Story meets the need for a history text that will be meaningful for all types of students. The book surveys American history from Colonial times to the present, devoting particular attention to developments since 1850, to social and economic backgrounds, and to the position of the United States in world affairs. The American Story leaves out unim- portant details in order to place emphasis on the major trends, move- ments, and recurrent issues of our national life. Jn press. About 672


Group Experience—The Democratic Way, by Bernice Baxter and Rosalind Cassidy. Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1943. Price, $2.50 ; 233 pages.

Local Pre-School Conferences in Michigan, Bulletin No. 2 of “Leads to Better Secondary Schools” series, Michigan Secondary School Curriculum Study, Lansing, Michigan, 1944. Price, 25 cents; 42 pages.

Practicing the Ways of Democracy Through the Girls League, by Sarah M. Sturtevant and Ethel Rosenberry. Bureau of Publica- tions, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, 1943; 112 pages.

Radio Development in a Small City School System, by Lola Berry, Meador Publishing Co., Boston, Massachusetts, 1943. Price, $1.50; 126 pages.

School Boards and Superintendents, by Ward G. Reeder. The Macmillan Company, 1944; 287 pages.

School District Reorganization for Colo- rado, by Calvin Grieder. The Colorado Association of School Boards, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 1944. Price, 50 cents ; 30 pages.

Success of Transferring Graduates of Junior College Terminal Curricula, by Walter Crosby Eells. American Association of J unior

D.C. HEATH AND COMPANY « San Francisco

Colleges, Washington, D. C., 1943. Price, 25 cents; 28 pages (reprinted from the Jour- nal of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars, July, 1943).

Teacher Education in Service, by Charles E. Prall and C. Leslie Cushman. American Council on Education, Washington, D. C., 1944. Price, $3.00; 516 pages.

Youth Learns to Assume Responsibility, Bulletin No. 3 of the “Leads to Better Sec- ondary Schools” series, Michigan Secondary School Curriculum Study, Lansing, Michigan, 1944. Price, 25 cents; 107 pages.

Who Shall Be Educated?, by W. Lloyd Warner, Robert J. Havighurst, and Martin B. Loeb. Harper & Brothers, 1944. Price, $2.50; 202 pages.

Composition books which have been received for review are the following:

Handbook of Writing and Speaking, by Edwin C. Wooley, Franklin W. Scott, and J. C. Tressler. D. C. Heath and Co., 1944. Price, $1.28; 336 pages.

Simplified English Grammar with Dia- grams, by Lura J. Loader. D. C. Heath and Company, Boston, 1944. Price, 44 cents; 41 pages (accompanied by Diagram Patterns for Exercises in Simplified English Grammar, 22 pages).



Vol. 19

Art in Today’s School Program

AN art help youth to understand

himself and the culture in which he lives more fully and, through this understanding, can it develop in him a realization of art’s social import? Yes, art constantly moulds the immediate present and adapts its expression to contemporary conditions, whether the results be a streamlined automobile or an eighteenth century coach. Yet why does youth so often let the work of the painter, the sculptor, and the designer pass by? Because he has not had enough art experiences in school and at home presented in terms that he can understand. Art experience for too long has been only for the few who can squeeze it into their program; parents, teachers, and counselors for- get the socializing nature of art and its great developmental influences.

N all the other arts, as well as in

every form of visual art, there are elements that are social; the drama of Shakespeare, the symphonies of Bee- thoven, the frescos of Diego Rivera so testify. The common art of simple liv- ing in its homely perfection has social significance ; Mother Goose rhymes, Negro spirituals, the hand-woven quilt of a pioneer woman. All have merit, each of its own kind, and all are part of the social life of the day.

It is only natural that youth cannot see the application of these art truths


to himself nor to his pattern of life and education. Very probably, like his family and friends when their oppor- tunities have been limited, he will view art as something practiced by a chosen few. He will know art, not by the social- izing and enriching influences it can exert on his development, but by the hasty glance given a mural in the public library or the hurried tour through a gallery.

Is it not true that in all forms of visual art there is much more than this limited point of view would indicate? Cannot art bring to youth much that he might otherwise miss? Cannot it be a means whereby youth may attain a finer and more poised personality? This would seem to be true, for art responds to all emotion and in turn may quicken emotion by its visual representation. Art is not an isolated experience, but rather it is a current in the stream of all social experience.

Diversified art experiences will bring to youth a liberation of spirit and open for them many avenues of self-expres- sion. To carve, to draw, to weave, to model, to assemble, is to release cre- ative energy normally and desirably. With the many and varied types of cre- ative work that there are—architecture, painting, industrial design, photogra- phy, ceramics, costume—young people with average ability can readily find a field well suited to their talents. To work with the hands and the mind and to see an original idea take form and substance carries the young worker


344 NOVEMBER, 1944

above and beyond himself. His spirits are raised, and he finds himself in a happier frame of mind.

In another way art experiences have a socializing influence. To plan, to work, to play, to talk, to laugh, is to make friends. Time spent working with others in’ studio, workroom, or shop solving individual and group problems develops sympathetic accord, because at this time many suggestions are made, much advice is given, and criticism must be accepted with good grace. Such experiences make a more pliable personality, for creative art, by the very nature of its being, its extreme indi- viduality, its challenge to the emotions, its inherent quality of always present- ing a problem, gives opportunity for mental growth and control. It helps develop many desirable personality traits—perseverance in conquering techniques ; self-confidence, in master- ing tools and materials; self-reliance, in rewarding originality ; self-assurance, in solving problems of line, form, and color; courage, in departing from the trite and ordinary.

The development of good taste is a progressive experience the pattern of which must be established in youth. To explore, to question, to experiment, to search, to apply, is to open new vistas of beauty which will have a vital effect on personal art standards. Through seeking new colors, new textures, and new art forms, a young person will be- come more discriminating and critical in his choices. If, by good fortune, he has manipulated some art material, his perception is even greater, for creative expression and art appreciation are interlocked. It may be debatable in edu- cation whether the intelligence quotient can be raised, but family cupboards and closets filled with the “art treasures” of earlier experience bear testimony that

Vor. 19, No. 6

standards in art rise when many rich art experiences are available.

Youth is only mildly concerned with his cultural background and too often overlooks the importance of its develop- ment in art. There are well-defined periods of artistic accomplishment of which he should know, for all the arts become more meaningful with the de- velopment of a cultural background— poetry, literature, music, theater, dance —all have an art frame of reference. Travel is enriched by an appreciation of art forms, history can hardly be understood without one’s being aware of the contribution of the artist, and recreation too may lose much of its pleasure if the arts are neglected.

An art avocation can become a most fruitful type of recreation. To work the hands after a long day of nervous strain in office, school, or home will often re- lieve emotional tensions through change of thought and physical action. Hobbies may develop pleasant social contacts among those having mutual interests. Young people will enjoy working to- gether, and young craftsmen are kept on the qui vive searching for new processes, tools, and materials. The comradeship of being with a group of friends of the same age is most wholesome and can become a bulwark against many of the pernicious recreations and influences so prevalent in war times.

HILE great success in creative

expression may be rewarded to comparatively few young people, all will find that one of life’s greatest enjoy- ments comes through a deeper sensi- tivity to beauty in nature. To touch the thorny twig, to taste the wild berry, to smell the fragrant lilac, to hear the meadowlark, and, most wonderful of all, to see—to see the unending beauty of nature, the yellow mustard growing between the orange trees, the pink ver-

bena carpeting the desert wastes, the blue lupine spreading over the fertile fields—to experience these is to recog- nize that art brings to youth an enriched pattern of living —Marcaret H. Erprt, associate editor ; supervisor of art, City School Department, San Bernardino.

Next Month

EXT month’s symposium is en-

titled “California’s Educational Offering for the Returned Veteran.” It is intended as a manual for the various agencies which are participating in pro- grams aimed at helping the returned veteran find his place in civilian life and as a guide to acquaint school people with what is going on in the State.

Planning for the returned veteran has caught the interest of nearly everyone, and nearly every school is making preparations to codperate in the pro- gram that is growing. But there is such a general misconception of what the schools are going to be called on to do, there is such a failure to understand what a school is permitted and obli- gated to do under existing legislation, there is such a confusion about the needs of the veterans who will return, and there have been so many delays in the organization of a real State-wide pro- gram for the education of veterans that this symposium should perform an im- portant service.

Since the symposium outlines com- prehensively for the first time in print the plans which are being made by the State Department of Education for par- ticipating in the education of veterans, it will be particularly appreciated by those who have called for leadership by the State in the setting up of a uni- fied program and in dealings with the Federal Government.

The symposium opens with a series of statements from returned veterans of what they want from their schooling. Then comes an article by W. T. Swei- gert, chairman of the committee of the



State Reconstruction and Reémploy- ment Commission which deals with veterans, outlining the magnitude of the problem which faces us. Then Julian A. McPhee, who has been charged by the State superintendent of public in- struction with responsibility for getting the State’s program under way, dis- cusses elements in a coordinated State program.

From the major agencies providing aid for returned veterans come brief descriptions of their programs. The next section of the symposium contains accounts of plans and activities in which representative California school systems are engaging.

H. B. McDaniel, state supervisor of occupational information and guidance, tells of the assistance which school guid- ance facilities are prepared to offer the returned veteran. Dr. McDaniel then summarizes what is being done and out- lines the steps which yet are to be taken.

Responsibility for the planning of this symposium has been in the hands of Dr. McDaniel.

The December issue also will include the anaual index, listing by author and by subject all articles which have ap- peared in the JouRNAL during 1944.

In this issue will appear the second in the series of two articles on vocational education written by D. F. Jackey. The first of these appears in the current issue; the second will be entitled “Se- lection and Education of Vocational Teachers.” Mrs. Lillian Graeber and Mrs. Elsa May Smith of the Thomas Jefferson High School, Los Angeles, contribute an article entitled “And Still the Out-of-State Pupils Come.”

New Associate Editors

HE names of four new Associate Editors appear in the JouRNAL’s Editorial Board as listed on the opening page of this issue. Representing the Modern Language Association of Northern and Central

346 NOVEMBER, 1944

California is Dr. Bayard Q. Morgan, professor of Germanic Languages, Stanford University.

Dr. Louise S. Cobb will serve on the staff as a representative of the Cali- fornia Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.

Mrs. J. J. Garland of Menlo Park, State president of the California Con- gress of Parents and Teachers, Inc.,

Vor. 19, No. 6

takes the place on the staff which Mrs. E. T. Hale held during her presidency of the California Congress.

Dr. D. F. Jackey, supervisor of trade and industrial teacher training and pro- fessor of vocational education at the University of California, Los Angeles, becomes the representative on the staff of the California Industrial Education Association.

4 Center of many recent attacks on the curriculum has been American history as taught in our schools today. The “New York Times” survey of what high school grad- uates know about their country’s history is too well known to need more mention, as are the numerous answering criticisms of the accuracy, adequacy. and general validity of the measuring instrument used by the “Times.” Other studies of how well Americans know their history, most of them serving to refute many conclusions of the earlier survey, have been made during recent months—the most notable of these, probably, being the investigation of the Committee on American History in Schools and Colleges, of which Edgar B. Wesley was director. But the question becomes not only one of how many facts about United States history have been learned in the schools but also, and according to many educators much more important, one of what sort of citizens have been developed.

In view of this general concern over the teaching of U. S. history. it is important that the “Journal” give attention to how this subject is and should be taught in Cali- fornia. The current symposium is devoted to this purpose.

The symposium consists of three parts, the first being a summary of the chief findings of the Wesley committee, written with particular emphasis on those portions of the study which have particular importance to Californians. The second part of the symposium is the complete report of the California Subcommittee on United States History and Civics. The Subcommittee has surveyed the present status of American history and civics in California and on the basis of its investigation has made recommendations with regard to the teaching of these subjects. Lest the sym- posium give the impression that adequate instruction in American history will alone result in the developing of good citizens, a third section has been included, an article considering the purposes of American history and orienting it in the social studies curriculum.

The current symposium is the first of two companion issues scheduled for this year. The second, which is to appear early next spring, will expand the sections of the Subcommittee report devoted to methods and materials, doing this in terms of the allocation of subject matter and emphases at the various levels where American history is to be taught. The articles on methods and materials, and also an impor- tant contribution on evaluation in U. S. history, will be written by outstanding Cali- fornia teachers. In this symposium also, Roland C. Faunce, associate director of the Michigan Secondary Study, will describe Michigan’s plan for building better citizens. Orders for the two symposia can be placed at the present time. Single copies will sell for 50 cents each. Ten or more copies of either or both issues will sell for 35 cents each.

Special credit for the two symposia should go to Dr. Quillen, who helped organize them, and to Dr. Hiram W. Edwards and other members of the California Committee who made available the Subcommittee report and helped with the planning of the



OR a quarter of a century the in-

creasing appreciation of the rdle of the social studies in the school curricu- lum has been one of the notable features of educational theory and policy. The decade of domestic stress which began with the stock market panic of 1929 focused the attention of the American people on contemporary economic and social issues with the almost inevitable result that economics, civics, and social problems received increased attention in the curriculum from the primary grades through the secondary school.

This expansion in the social studies was necessarily accompanied by a re- consideration of the rdle of history in the social studies generally, with results that were not universally pleasing to those who believed that an appreci- ation of historical background and per- spective are the foundation upon which an understanding of society and its problems must rest. The entrance of the United States into the present war brought this conflict between the older concept of history and the newer empha- sis upon social studies as a group into sharp focus. The consequence has been a series of significant inquiries as to the actual status of American history in the school curriculum.

The most ambitious of these inquiries, and in many respects the most signifi- cant, was that sponsored codperatively by three great national organizations of historians and educators in the summer of 1943. This originated in independ- ent action by the council of the Ameri- can Historical Association in December, 1942, and the annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical Associ-

U. S. History in Schools and


q “This is an appropriate time for the appearance of a report on the teach- .ing and study of American History. National crises naturally lead to na- tional self-examination. The war has caused a re-examination of the pur- poses, extent, and quality of instruc- tion in American History. Such ap- praisals enable the schools and col- leges to reconsider their purposes and rechart their course. This report is the result of an organized attempt to re- state the fundamental problems in the teaching of American History.” Thus the Committee on American History in Schools and Colleges describes in the opening paragraph of its report its assignment. How it performed its work and the recommendations it made are reviewed in detail in the present article by Dr. Bradley. It is important that the work of this com- mittee be summarized in the present symposium, because the report of the California Subcommittee which is in- cluded herein uses many of the find- ings of the Committee on American History in Schools and Colleges as supporting evidence for its conclu- sions, checking only to verify which of these are applicable to California.

Dr. Bradley, who writes the present article, is an associate professor of history at Stanford University. It is particularly appropriate for him to make this summary since he was a member of the Committee and par- ticipated in all the deliberations which led to the final report.

ation in April, 1943, both of which bodies authorized a study of the status of American history in the schools and colleges of the nation. The officers of the two associations combined forces


348 NOVEMBER, 1944

and invited the National Council for the Social Studies to join them in the pro- posed study. This invitation was ac- cepted, and the three organizations ap- pointed one committee of fourteen per- sons, representing virtually every sec- tion of the country and including in its personnel professors of history, pro- fessors of education, and high school teachers of the social studies. The di- rector of the committee was Professor Edgar B. Wesley of the University of Minnesota.

Under the leadership of Professor Wesley, the committee devised a test designed to indicate the extent to which various groups in our society possess a knowledge of some of the facts of our national history, analyzed the legislative or administrative requirements of the forty-eight states with respect to the teaching of American history, investi- gated the social studies curriculum in a group of representative communities, and held three meetings of the whole committee to evaluate its findings and to formulate a series of recommen- dations concerning the organization of the curriculum in American history and the standards which should be expected of all who taught history in the junior and senior high schools.

The results of the committee’s de- liberations were published in January, 1944, in a slender volume entitled American History in Schools and Col- leges.*

The committee realized that before formulating a set of recommendations it must seek answers to a series of perti- nent questions. These questions dealt with the present requirements of the states and cities concerning the teaching of American history, the effectiveness of the teaching that is now being done, the value of-a study of our national his-

1 The Report of the Committee on American

History in Schools and Colleges, Edgar B. ieee’ director. The Macmillan Company,

Vor. 19, No. 6

tory to the student, and how much may fairly be expected of students at vari- ous age and grade levels. The published report of the committee reveals clearly the dual character of its labors. The first five chapters are devoted to a résumé of the committee’s inquiries as to the present state of the teaching of Ameri- can history; the remaining five chap- ters contain the recommendations of the committee in those fields in which it believed itself competent to make sug- gestions and to give advice.

HE committee accepted from the

beginning the thesis that some knowledge of our national history is an essential part of the education of all Americans. From this fundamental po- sition there was no dissent within the committee. The second chapter of its report, “Why Should Americans Know Their Own History,” represents the convictions of every member of the com- mittee and is a forceful statement of the values to be derived from an under- standing and appreciation of American history.

When the committee examined the available evidence as to the effectiveness of courses in American history in the schools and colleges, it was compelled to conclude that the results often are disappointing. There seems to be no escape from the fact that students who have passed through such courses fre- quently have learned less about their country’s past than seems desirable.